The air in Antarctica is also very dry. Melting or breakup of floating shelf ice does not directly affect global sea levels; however, ice shelves have a buttressing effect on the ice flow behind them.  Rainfall is rare and mainly occurs during the summer in coastal areas and surrounding islands. The vortex acts like an atmospheric barrier, preventing warmer, coastal air from moving into the continent's interior. This involves an array of hundreds of optical devices set at depths of up to 1.2 miles (2 km) in the ice below the South Pole. Moist maritime air interacting with cold polar air makes the Antarctic Ocean in the vicinity of the Polar Front one of the world’s stormiest. Many factors determine Antarctica’s climate, but the primary one is the geometry of the Sun-Earth relationship. Mean temperatures of the coldest months are −4 to −22 °F (−20 to −30 °C) on the coast and −40 to −94 °F (−40 to −70 °C) in the interior, the coldest period on the polar plateau being usually in late August just before the return of the sun. Antarctica. The spot, which is located in the heart of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, is one of the fastest-warming places on Earth. Positioned asymmetrically around the South Pole and largely south of the Antarctic Circle, Antarctica is the southernmost continent and is surrounded by the Southern Ocean; alternatively, it may be considered to be surrounded by the southern Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Oceans, or by the southern waters of the World Ocean. Steady westerly winds prevail, reaching gale force at times with their passage through deep Antarctic low-pressure zones. Moreover, during Antarctic winters, freezing of the surrounding sea effectively more than doubles the size of the continent and removes the oceanic heat source to nearly 1,800 miles from the central polar plateau.  This is, however, very unlikely within the next few centuries. It would be helpful if there was a map or something of the Pangaea climate. In 2015, the temperature showed changes but in a stable manner and the only months that have drastic change in that year are August and September. In Antarctica it is cold throughout the year with temperatures of -30 in winter and about -10 to 10 in summer. Although the coast is warmer and temperatures can reach a maximum of between -2°C and 8°C during the summer. Ozone is destroyed as the result of chemical reactions on the surfaces of particles in polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs).  This temperature is not directly comparable to the –89.2 °C reading quoted above, since it is a skin temperature deduced from satellite-measured upwelling radiance, rather than a thermometer-measured temperature of the air 1.5 m (4.9 ft) above the ground surface.  The Antarctic Peninsula has the most moderate climate. , The British Antarctic Survey, which has undertaken the majority of Britain's scientific research in the area, stated in 2009:, The area of strongest cooling appears at the South Pole, and the region of strongest warming lies along the Antarctic Peninsula. The temperature gradient associated with Antarctica's sea-ice zone is one of the strongest on Earth, and the seasonal variability in the extent of sea ice is an important regulator of the climate of the Southern Hemisphere. 2010-05-16 17:49:45 2010-05-16 17:49:45. polar. At Commonwealth Bay on the Adélie Coast the wind speed averaged 45 miles per hour (20 metres per second). The coast is warmer; on the coast Antarctic average temperatures are around −10 °C (14.0 °F) (in the warmest parts of Antarctica) and in the elevated inland they average about −55 °C (−67.0 °F) in Vostok. International concern is increasing over the possibility of global warming (an amplification of Earth’s greenhouse effect). ... “The ice in these clouds triggers a reaction which then can destroy the ozone zone. Theoretically, Antarctica would be located in all time zones; however, areas south of the Antarctic Circle experience extreme day-night cycles near the times of the June and December solstices, making it difficult to determine which time zone would be appropriate. The Center for Astrophysical Research in Antarctica (CARA) is a joint project facilitated by the United States and Germany with collaborators in other countries. The low temperatures result in a very low absolute humidity, which means that dry skin and cracked lips are a continual problem for scientists and expeditioners working on the continent. Although “night” theoretically is six months long at the geographic pole, one month of this actually is a twilight period. These and other factors are essentially the same for both polar regions. These temperatures are far lower than those of the Arctic, where monthly means range only from about 32 °F in summer to −31 °F in winter. It also noted a need for greater understanding of the role the region may have in slowing the rate of climate change and of the future behaviour of the ice sheet and its contribution to sea level rise. The temperatures are negative all year round. Gusts estimated at between 140 and 155 miles per hour on December 9, 1960, destroyed a Beaver aircraft at Mawson Station on the Mac. Adelie penguin . During a recent[when?] The amount of incoming solar radiation, and thus heat, depends additionally on the incident angle of the rays and therefore decreases inversely with latitude to reach a minimum at the geographic poles. Map showing the extent of collapse of the Larsen Ice Shelf. Wind chill—the cooling power of wind on exposed surfaces—is the major debilitating weather factor of Antarctic expeditions. But do know what place is even colder than the North Pole? McMurdo … Ozone depletion over the Antarctic continent was first noticed in 1985. Although this is partly offset by fall cooling in East Antarctica, this effect is restricted to the 1980s and 1990s.
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