E.A. Interestingly, the hot plate test effect was only significant at the higher dose of sulfated polysaccharides suggesting a less potent effect on central nervous system-mediated pain for this compound (Coura et al., 2012). All have branches that fork near their ends. They reported significant antinociceptive activity of a sulfated polysaccharide obtained from the green seaweed Caulerpa racemosa following treatment with acetic acid and formalin but not in the hot plate test (Ribeiro et al., 2014). The dolabellane diterpenes, 290–292 (Barbosa et al., 2004; Barbosa et al., 2003), were isolated from the brown alga Dictyota pfaffii, and 290 exhibited significant antifeedant activity against the herbivorous sea urchin Lytechinus variegates as well as strong antiherpes simplex virus-1 activity in vitro (Barbosa et al., 2007). 1, 2. Thallus blade-like, solitary or in clusters, 8–15(–20) cm high, 2–8 cm broad, broadly flabellate, always split into lobes, yellowish-brown, olive-brown, lightly calcified. These compounds inhibited bacterial attachment with CC50 < 0.38 ng/cm2 for DMSP and <0.1 ng/cm2 and <1.66 ng/cm2 for proline. ), and approximately 60% of them have been found on coral reefs (data from C. Jiménez, B. Martínez-Daranas, A. M. Suárez, J. Trelles and D. Zúñiga). Vaughaniella stage thalli forming rhizomatous densely matted turf. On vertical side of dead coral block. Hainan Island, the vicinity of Wenchang City, March 2012. 3. da Gama, ... Renato C. Pereira, in Advances in Botanical Research, 2014. com.). The "Dietyota" group of algae has furnished more than 180 diter- penes, with 27 different skeleton types. The most conspicuous genera are Dictyota, Turbinaria, Stypopodium and Halimeda. These are essential to maintain the balanced production of hormone-like substances that help regulate many important physiological functions, including blood pressure, blood clotting, nerve transmission, inflammatory and allergic responses, functions of the kidneys and gastrointestinal tract (GIT), and the production of other hormones (Calder, 2015; American Pregnancy, 2014). Hainan Island, Luhuitou, November 2010. Growing on hard substrate, epiphytic on larger algae and on seagrass leaves, in lower intertidal to subtidal, exposed to moderate wave action. Each oogonium contains one egg cell, is fertilized externally, and develops to form the sporophyte. Cross-section of thallus. All these reproductive organs borne on the upper surface of thalluses. Range: Circumtropical Natural Environment: Generally found along rocky shorelines where it attains a 12 inch height having flat Y-shaped blades. Sulfated polysaccharides from the red seaweed Gracilaria cornea were evaluated in nociceptive mice models. North, Central, and South America, Atlantic islands, Africa, Indian Ocean islands, South-west Asia, Asia (China, Japan, Taiwan), South-east Asia (Vietnam, Thailand, Myanmar, Singapore, Indonesia, Philippines), Australia and New Zealand, Pacific islands. As one of the most important sources of nonanimal sulfated polysaccharides, marine algae have been used for various ailments. Branching dichotomous, at 45–90 degrees angle. terpenes of mixed biosynthetic origin) active against A. amphitrite cyprids (Culioli et al., 2008). Outer margins in-rolled. Sporangia spherical, to 80 μm in diameter, on one-celled stalk, projecting. Inset: habit of dry pressed old specimen. Other marine products are usually purchased from abroad. Indian Ocean islands, South-west Asia (Arabian Gulf, Sri Lanka), Asia (China, Japan, Korea, Taiwan), South-east Asia (Vietnam, Thailand, Philippines, Indonesia), Pacific islands. The diverse array of functionalities and stereocenters has made dolabellanes a challenge for synthetic chemists, who have helped to establish the absolute configurations of these natural products.66 Several distinct strategies have been tackled, with macrocyclization as the key reaction.66 Although macroalgal dolabellane diterpenes exhibit a range of pharmacologically relevant activities, no dolabellane metabolite has been pursued so far for further pharmaceutical development. 1. The plant body of Dictyota is long, dichotomously branched, flattened, and brown in color. Species are predominantly found in tropical and sub-tropical seas, and are known to contain numerous chemicals (diterpenes) which have potential medicinal value.As at the end of 2017, some 237 different â¦ Wet biomass values in Playa El Chivo reef were lower than in the Sabana-Camagüey reefs, probably due to the high water turbidity, and the different seasons in which sampling was conducted. In habitat, the upper subtidal zone, Hainan Island, Luhuitou, April 2012. 2, 3, 4. Aquarium Suitability: Usually inters the trade attached to live rock gathered near shorelines. In habitat, Hainan Island, Luhuitou, the upper subtidal zone (2 m depth). Taniguchi, Shiraishi, Kurata, and Suzuki (1989) reported a spatane diterpene from Dilophus okamurai that inhibits metamorphosis of abalone larvae at 5–10 ppb. Kelps are large brown algae seaweeds that make up the order Laminariales. In transverse section, blade 140–165 μm thick; cortical cells square-roundish, densely pigmented, medullar cells rectangular, slightly longitudinally elongated, with thin cell walls. Growing on rocks and dead corals in the lower intertidal zone at sites exposed to moderate and strong wave action. Surface cell rectangular, 12–18(–27) μm wide and 24–50(–75) μm long, in regular rows. Sporangial sori in bands alternate with hair bands. One genus in this order is calcareous, Padina, the only calcareous member of this phylum. 2 31 Abstract Although Lobophora belongs to a marine algal family (Dictyotaceae) 32 that produces a large array of secondary metabolites, it has received little attention 33 compared to other genera, such as Dictyota, in terms of natural compounds isolation 34 and characterization. In addition, two dolastane-type diterpenes, 313–314, were isolated from the brown alga D. dichotoma (Ayyad et al., 2011). Unsaturated fatty acids from this alga also showed AF properties. Central and South America, Atlantic islands, Caribbean islands, western Atlantic, Africa, Indian Ocean islands, South-west Asia, Asia (China, Japan, Korea, Taiwan), South-east Asia (Vietnam, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines), Australia and New Zealand, Pacific islands. Segments between dichotomies 1.0–3.5 cm long. Dictyota cervicornis. Coral colonies grow sparsely forming large individuals. These sulfated polysaccharides presented a significant antinociceptive effect in the writhing, the formalin, and the hot plate tests. On the other hand, in a previous phylogenetic study of Dictyota samples using psbA gene, it was found Dictyota pinnatifida belongs to a clade that also contains D. mertensii and D caribaea Hörnig & Schnetter ( Mesquita et al., 2015 ). This frequency was 60% at 10 m, and 20% at 20 m. Unfortunately, there are not previous values for intra site comparisons. Attachment by stypose discoid holdfast. Cross-section of the blade. mainly dwell on sandy bottoms. Dictyota. Seven sponge species are present, encrusting and boring forms (Chondrilla nucula and Cliona langae) dominating. Katsuoka, Ogura, Etoh, Sakata, and Ina (1990) isolated galactosyl and sulphoquinovosyl-diacylglycerols from Costaria costata and Undaria pinnatifida that exhibit activity against M. edulis. Medullary cells rectangular, 110–140 μm wide, 125–155 μm thick, colorless, longitudinally elongated. Furthermore, 313 and 314 showed potent activity against DNA damage and cytotoxicity against WI-38, HepG2, and MCF-7 cell lines as well as antioxidant activity using ABTS and erythrocytes hemolysis. (2001) and Maréchal et al. Another study by Saha et al. Margins entire, apices broad, rounded. (2012) isolated dimethylsulphopropionate (DMSP) and proline from the surface of F. vesiculosus. Distribution. Europe, South and Central America, Atlantic islands, Indian Ocean islands, South-west Asia, Asia (Japan, China, Korea, Far East of Russia: Peter the Great Bay; Sakhalin Island and Moneron Island), South-east Asia (Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Philippines), Australia and New Zealand, Pacific islands. Red algae are common and mainly represented by the genera Galaxaura, Jania and Amphiroa as well as by many species of the order Ceramiales and crustose genera (Peyssonnelia, Litophyllum and Mesophyllum). The following brown algae are found within the coral cap region of the sanctuary (0-130 ft, 0-40m deep). Dictyota is a genus of seaweed in the Dictyotaceae family. Habit of dry pressed young specimen. Cross-section showing cells and sporangia. ArticleMetrics. Most of the red algae are multicellular. Up to now, 526 species of marine macroalgae of the Divisions Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta, and Rhodophyta have been registered in Cuba (A. M. Suárez per. In transverse section, blade to 380 μm thick comprised of 10–13 cell layers at the basal portion, 120–250 μm comprised of 5–6 cell layers in the middle portion, and 2–3 cell layers (60–100 μm thick) in the upper portion of the blade. Moreover, Nomura et al. The algae of the genus Dictyota Lamouroux present difficulties in the establishment of clear limits of separation between species.In previous studies, our group has indicated that the diterpenes from Dictyota species may play an important role as taxonomic markers (e.g., De-Paula et al., 2001, 2007a, 2008; Freitas et al., 2007; Teixeira et al., 1990, 2001).
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